Senin, 19 Maret 2012



Created By:

Misyanti                                 (0901050046)

The english department
teacher training and education  faculty
muhammadiyah university of purwokerto


A.    The Differences:
1.      Definition of Teaching
At Penn State, teaching excellence is viewed as:
Ø  an academic process by which students are motivated to learn in ways that make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel;
Ø  a process that elevates students to a level where they learn deeply and remarkably because of teacher attributes that are outlined below.

2.      Micro teaching is a term used to describe the teaching of a small amount of material in a small amount of time to a small number of students.

3.      Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next.

4.      Peer Teaching
Practice in which students take on a teaching role in a school setting in order to share their knowledge with other students. Peer teaching involves students learning from and with each other in ways which are mutually beneficial and involve sharing knowledge, ideas and experience between participants. The emphasis is on the learning process, including the emotional support that learners offer each other, as much as the learning itself.

B.     The Essences
1.      The Essence of Teaching
Learning is a change in behavior that relatively stable due to practice aand experience. Real learning is characteristic that distingushes humans and animas. Learning is doneby human beings is part of his life, lasts a lifetime, anytime, and anywhere, wether at school, in a class, the streets in an unspecified time before. However, one thing is certain that human beings learn to do with faith and a purpose (Oemar Hamalik:2004: 154) Learning is an experience, in the sense that learning occurs in the interaction between the individual and the environment , either the physical and social environment. Physical environment, such as books, props, environment, and others. A good learning environment is stimulating and challenging environment in learning ( Udin S. Winata Putra, dk : 2002 : 2.3) Skiner ( dalam Mumamad Tohri : 2007 : 4) argues that learning is a behavior. When people learn, the response will be strong. If he did not study, the response will decreases. In learning, has found the existence following:
a.       The chance occurrence of the events that lead to the response of the learning;
b.      Response Learning;
c.       Consequences of such a response is strengthened.
As with learning, teaching and even in essence is a process that regulates, organizes existing environment surrounding the students so, as to foster and encourage the students to do the learning process. On the next step, teaching is the process of providing guidance or support to the students in the learning process. Finally, if the essence of learning is changing, the nature of teaching and learning is the process of setting undertaken by the teacher. In teaching and learning activeties, teacher should consider the students’ individual differences, namely the biological, intellectual, and psychological.
2.      The Essence of Micro teaching
Microteaching is a training technique where by the teacher reviews a videotape of the lesson after each session, in order to conduct a "post-mortem". Teachers find out what has worked, which aspects have fallen short, and what needs to be done to enhance their teaching technique. Invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford University by Dr. Dwight Allen, micro-teaching has been used with success for several decades now, as a way to help teachers acquire new skills.
Microteaching is so called since it is analogous to putting the teacher under a microscope so to say while he is teaching so that all faults in teaching methodology are brought into perspective for the observers to give a constructive feedback. It eliminates some of the complexities of learning to teach in the classroom situation such as the pressure of length of the lecture, the scope and content of the matter to be conveyed, the need to teach for a relatively long duration of time (usually an hour) and the need to face large numbers of students, some of whom are hostile temperamentally.
So, the essence of Micro Teaching is to provides skilled supervision with an opportunity to get a constructive feedback. To go back to the analogy of the swimmer, while classroom teaching is like learning to swim at the deeper end of the pool, microteaching is an opportunity to practice at the shallower and less risky side.

3.      The Essence of Education
According to Freire, education is to liberate nature. Freire break down that education should be loking at social reality. Education is not limited by the methods and techniques for teaching students. Education fr freedom is not just using a projector and other sophisicated technology means that something is offered to students from any background. But as a social praxis, education seeks to provide help free a man in the life of a choking objective of their oppression. The same thing also expressed by Ki Hajar Dewantara, that education should be liberating. Mangunwijaya who think education should be based on social reality.
Latin name of education is educare, which means pulling out of, and this may be intrepeted as an effort glorification. Word educare give direction to the glorification of man, or the formation of man. In simple terms lexically education is a process of liberation to make humans more humane. A more humane means noble man, who came out of oppression and ignorance. So, the essence of education is something that can free mankind from eppression in the lives of strangling them to better glorification.

C.    The Model of Learning
1.      Dick and Carrey Model
One model of learning is a model of Dick and Carrey (1985). This model is included in the procedural models. Learning design measures according to Dick and Carrey are:
a.       Identify common goals of learning;
b.      Carry out the analysis of learning;
c.       Identify the behavior and characteristics of student input;
d.      Formulate performance goals;
e.       Develop the points of reference benchmark test;
f.       Develop learning strategies;
g.      Development and selection of learning materials;
h.      Designing and implementing a formative evaluation;
i.        Revise learning materials; and
j.        Design and conduct summative evaluation.

2.      Kemp Model
In short, according to this model there are several steps in the preparation of a teaching materials, namely:
a.       Set goals and a list of topica, learning to set goals for each general topic;
b.      Analyzing the characteristics of students, for whom learning is designed;
c.       Establish learning objectives to be achieved in terms of its impact can be used as a benchmark for student behavior;
d.      Determine the content of the subject matter that can support each goal;
e.       Development of pre-assessment or initial assessment to determine the background level of students and provision of knowledge on a topic;
f.       Choosing learning activities and fun learning resource or determine the teaching and learning strategies, so their students will easyly complete the desired objectives;
g.      Coordinate support services or facilities that include support personel, facilities, equipment, and schedule for implementing the learning plan; and
h.      Evaluate student learning on condition that they complete the study and see the mistaken and review some of the planning phase that requirescontinuous improvement, evaluation of formative evaluation and summative evaluation.

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